OCUP 2: Foundation - Supplementary

OMG Certified UML Professional 2™ (OCUP 2™): Foundation Level

Supplementary Coverage Map

This Supplementary Coverage Map, organized around the structure of the UML® language as it is presented in the specification document, adds detail to the original OCUP 2 Foundation Coverage Map which is based on diagram type and should remain your primary source of information on what to study and, especially, how to view it. As a Foundation level modeler, you will get the clearest possible understanding of the way UML operates by viewing and studying the language as a set of diagram types, learning the aspects of your system that are shown most clearly by each type and how the set of diagram types work together to visualize the structure and behavior of your complete software system. That's why we organized and presented the original and still primary OCUP 2 Foundation Coverage Map by diagram type, and it is also the way our authors viewed the language as they wrote questions for the first exam. Unfortunately, the UML specification does not define the structural diagram types precisely enough to allow us to continue this organization beyond Foundation to the Intermediate and Advanced levels. 

We had to cope with this organization as we constructed the Intermediate and Advanced OCUP 2 levels to cover the UML elements and attributes that are most used (and useful!) to model builders and users at those two levels. Because the UML specification document is organized by function, in contrast to the OCUP 2 examinations which are based on level of modeling experience and expertise, we had to partition many individual UML elements or attributes among two or even all three of the OCUP 2 levels. You will notice this as you study for the Intermediate and Advanced OCUP 2 exams later. 

That explains the organization of the coverage maps for Intermediate and Advanced, but why are we introducing a similarly organized map for Foundation? We needed to because the three OCUP 2 exams' coverage build on each other, each on the material covered at the level below it. In many places, the Intermediate or Advanced coverage maps make this dependency explicit by telling you to "add" a certain aspect in a subsection - that is, add this material to the portion of the subsection that was covered at the lower level(s). Even though, to you, this document provides a useful delineation of the UML elements and attributes that you need to study at Foundation level, its primary purpose is to serve as a basis for our coverage descriptions at the Intermediate and Advanced levels (as you will see when you start studying for your next exam!). 

The organization of the Foundation Exam into sections with percentages, and the reference list, appear (only!) on the primary Foundation Level Coverage Map here. Note that the first section, Why We Model (which accounts for 15% of the total score) is not covered in this supplement. 


Coverage of UML includes these Elements:

Chapter 6: General Topics

Abstract Syntax

  • Every first-level subsection of the UML specification starts with a UML diagram labeled Abstract Syntax. The OCUP 2 exams do not ask about these diagrams explicitly, but they are good examples of the language you're studying(!) and represent the relationships linking the elements to be presented in the sections that follow in a particularly clear and concise way. Learn to read them - this will provide an advantage to your study.
Chapter 7: Common Structure
  • 7.2 Root concepts - All 
  • 7.3 Templates - Templates are Excluded from Foundation and Intermediate levels; Templates and the many elements that support them will be covered at Advanced level only. This exclusion encompasses elements and attributes defined for Templates here and later on (String Expressions and Name Expressions, e.g.; most have "Template" somewhere in their names). There are many of these scattered throughout the specification but we will not point out on the Foundation and Intermediate Coverage Maps, for each one, that it is excluded. This exclusion applies even within subsections denoted "All" in the coverage list. 
  • 7.4 Namespaces - All except as noted below: 
    • Except: ownedRule constraints, nested nameSpaces, circle-plus notation, ElementImport 
    • Except: StringExpression (used in Templates) and nameExpression 
  • 7.5 Types and Multiplicity - All except Cardinality, isOrdered, isUnique, multiplicity string 
  • 7.6 Constraints - All except owner 
  • 7.7 Dependencies - All except Usage, Abstraction, Realization
Chapter 8: Values
  • 8.2 Literals - All
  • 8.3 Expressions
    • Opaque Expressions - All Except opaque expressions defined by a UML behavior
Chapter 9: Classification
  • 9.2 Classifiers 
    • 9.2.3 Semantics 
      • Classifiers: All Except the mentioned relations to Collaboration and UseCase 
      • Generalization: All Except the detail in this section about Substitutability 
  • 9.4 Features 
    • 9.4.3 Semantics 
      • Features: All 
      • Structural Features: All Except execution scope, isReadOnly 
      • Behavioral Features: All Except concurrency 
      • Parameters: All Except the effect property, redefines (ParameterSet is not covered in OCUP 2) 
  • 9.5 Properties
    • 9.5.3 Semantics 
      • Includes Property as an attribute of a Classifier and as the parts of Structured Classifiers; context for the Property; basic definition of derived Property (isDerived=true); aggregation Except details about composite aggregation 
      • The semantics of the defaultValue, isStatic, and isDerived properties will be covered in more detail at Intermediate level, but their notation and basic aspects (that is, the syntax) are covered at Foundation level 
  • 9.6 Operations 
    • 9.6.3 Semantics 
      • Operations: Includes basic definition including return Parameter 
  • 9.8 Instances 
    • 9.8.3 Semantics 
      • All except InstanceSpecification partially representing the instance it corresponds to, classification of the instance by zero or more than one Classifier, type restrictions on a defining ValueSpecification, and snapshots
Chapter 10: Simple Classifiers
  • 10.2 DataTypes - All 
  • 10.3 Signals - Signals and Receptions will be covered in this exam as used in Sequence diagrams; see Chapter 17. The semantics covered in this chapter will be covered at Intermediate level. 
  • 10.4 Interfaces 
    • 10.4.3 Semantics - All except ownership of a ProtocolStateMachine.
Chapter 11: Structured Classifiers
  • 11.4 Classes 
    • 11.4.1 Summary 
      • Include purpose of a class. NOTE: The summary also points out that "Class is the concrete realization of EncapsulatedClassifier and BehavioredClassifier". Although this metamodel-based aspect will not be tested explicitly until Advanced level, it provides much insight to candidates who take the time to understand what it means, and what it indicates. 
    • 11.4.3 Semantics 
      • Classes: Includes Basic aspects of Class. Excludes detailed aspects of, e.g., attributes, namespace, isActive, which will be covered at Intermediate level. 
  • 11.5 Associations 
    • 11.5.1 Summary: Excludes AssociationClass 
    • 11.5.3 Semantics 
      • Associations: Includes basic aspects of Associations, including composite aggregation, navigability. Excludes Associations with more than two memberEnds, Association defining a collection, subsetting, specialization, navigableOwnedEnd, qualifier, derived Association
Chapter 12: Packages
  • 12.1 Summary: All Except Profiles, which will be covered at Advanced level 
  • 12.2 Packages 
    • 12.2.3 Semantics 
      • Package: Includes basic definition. Excludes merging, specifying the URI. 
      • Package Merge: NOTE that Package Merge is Not covered in OCUP 2 at any level. 
      • NOTE: For more on packages, download the White Paper Model Organization with Packages and the Package Diagram in the references section of the Primary Coverage Map page.
Chapter 13: Common Behavior
  • 13.2 Behaviors: 
    • 13.2.3 Semantics: 
      • Behaviors: All Except behavior as a class, reentrant. 
      • Behavior Parameters: All Except defaultValue. Includes streaming at awareness level only. ParameterSets are not covered in OCUP 2. 
      • Behavioral Features and Methods: Includes Operations and Receptions; excludes method, context, resolution process 
  • 13.3 Events 
    • At Foundation level, Events are treated in the context of specific diagrams (sequence, activity, state machine, primarily). Detailed aspects of Events (and of Behaviors in general), described in Section 13.3 and its subsections, will be covered at the Intermediate and Advanced levels.
Chapter 14: StateMachines
  • StateMachine coverage at Foundation level: 
    • StateMachine coverage at Foundation level Includes only the single-region Behavior State Machine. All aspects of this StateMachine are included Except the following: 
      • specification of a method of a behavioredClassifier (that is, an Operation or Reception corresponding to a BeharioralFeature); regions; encapsulated composite States; submachine States; history (deep or shallow); deferred events and the event pool; the pseudostates join, fork, entrypoint, exitpoint, and terminate; transition kind=local; high-level (group) transitions; conflicting transitions; firing priorities;transition selection and execution sequence; StateMachine redefinition; and ProtocolStateMachines. 
    • Also Excluded is the alternative graphical representation illustrated in Figure 14.32.
Chapter 15: Activities
  • 15.2 Activities 
    • 15.2.1 Summary: All 
    • 15.2.3 Semantics: 
      • Activities: Includes the Token model - object tokens and control tokens - but Excludesobject tokens over ControlFlow edges and isControlType, which will be covered at Advanced level. Also Excludes the null token, token movement details resulting from offer and acceptance, named edges, Activies as classes. 
      • Activity Nodes: All Except concurrent execution, and one token offered to multiple targets 
      • Activity Edges: All Except object tokens passing over activity edges, contention, weight, token ordering. 
      • Object Flows: Include the basic definition of Object Flow. 
      • Activity Execution: Include precondition and postcondition constraints. 
  • 15.3 Control Nodes 
    • 15.3.3 Semantics 
      • Initial Node: All Except additional concurrent flows and CentralBufferNodes 
      • Final Nodes: All Except isSingleExecution 
      • Fork Nodes: All Except handling of unaccepted token offers 
      • Join Nodes: All Except joinSpec and isCombinedDuplicate 
      • Merge Nodes: All 
      • Decision Nodes: The basic behavior of Decision Nodes is covered at this Foundation level, but the distinction between the decisionInputFlow and the primary incoming edge is Not covered until Intermediate and Advanced. 
  • 15.4 Object Nodes 
    • 15.4.1 Summary: All Except CentralBufferNodes and DataStoreNodes 
    • 15.4.3 Semantics: 
      • Object Nodes: Includes Basic token input and output. 
      • ActivityParameterNodes: All Except ordering 
  • 15.5 Executable Nodes 
    • 15.5.3 Semantics 
      • Executable Nodes: All Except isControlType, multiple concurrent executions
Chapter 16: Actions
  • 16.1 Summary: Includes the basic definition of Action as contained in Activities. 
  • 16.2 Actions: 
    • 16.2.3 Semantics 
      • Actions: Includes basic definition of Action including input and output on pins, and localPrecondition and localPostcondition. Excludes context BehavioredClassifier, StructuredActivityNodes, streaming, multiple instances, non-locally-reentrant and non-reentrant behavior, and effects of violations of localPrecondition and localPostcondition. 
      • Opaque Actions: All Except interpretation of body strings 
      • Pins: Includes basic definition of input and output pins, ordering (basic aspects only), multiplicity. Excludes multiplicity requirements on output pins for termination, ValuePins, ActionInputPins. 
      • Pins: All Except attributes ordering and isOrdered (NOTE: At Foundation level, values on a pin may be ordered but the exam will not link this causally with a value of either of these attributes), StructuredActivityNodes and pins during execution, multiplicity requirements on output pins for termination, ValuePins, ActionInputPins 
  • 16.3 Invocation Actions 
    • 16.3.3 Semantics 
      • Call Actions: Includes CallAction, basic definition. CallBehaviorAction, CallOperationAction 
      • Send Actions: Includes basic definition, SendSignalAction. 
  • 16.10 Accept Event Actions 
    • 16.10.1 Summary: All 
    • 16.10.3 Semantics 
      • Accept Event Action: All 
      • Accept Call Actions: Definition, Pins, triggering and basic returning values. Excludes triggering by an asynchronous call, method behavior caveat
Chapter 17: Interactions
  • 17.1 Summary 
    • 17.1.1 Overview: General uses as discussed, trace, allowed and disallowed traces (but disallowed or invalid traces will be tested at Advanced level only), discussion relating to sequence diagrams. 
    • 17.1.2 Basic Trace Model: All Except Interaction equivalence 
    • 17.1.3 Partial ordering constraints on valid and invalid traces: All Except coregion or parallel operator effect 
    • 17.1.4 Interaction Diagram Variants: The Sequence Diagram is tested at Foundation level. The Communication Diagram will be tested at (this)  Intermediate level. The Interaction Overview Diagram will be tested at Advanced level. Neither the Timing Diagram nor Interaction Tables will be tested in OCUP 2. 
  • 17.2 Interactions 
    • 17.2.3 Semantics 
      • Interactions: All Except generalizing, redefining, and specializing an Interaction, and use of a formal Gate 
      • Occurrence Specifications: All 
      • Execution Specifications: All 
  • 17.3 Lifelines 
    • 17.3.3 Semantics 
      • Lifelines: Includes definition and use of Lifelines in modeling Except local ordering. Parallel combined fragment will be tested at Intermediate level, and coregion will be tested at Advanced. 
  • 17.4 Messages 
    • 17.4.3 Semantics 
      • Messages: Includes signature as Operation or Signal, messagesort. 
      • Message Ends: All 
      • Message Occurrence Specifications: All 
      • Destruction Occurrence Specifications: All 
      • Gates: MessageOccurrenceSpecifications ordering rules 
  • 17.5 Occurrences 
    • 17.5.3 Semantics 
      • Action Execution Specifications: All 
      • Behavior Execution Specifications: All 
      • Execution Occurrence Specifications: All 
  • 17.6 Fragments 
    • 17.6.3 Semantics 
      • Weak Sequencing: All 
  • 17.8 Sequence Diagrams 
    • Introduction: All 
      • 17.8.1: Sequence Diagram Notation 
        • Graphic Nodes: Frame, Lifeline, ExecutionSpecification, DestructionOccurrenceSpecification 
        • Graphic Paths: Message
Chapter 18: UseCases
  • 18.1 UseCases 
    • 18.1.1 Summary: All Except technical definition of instance 
    • 18.1.3 Semantics 
      • Use Cases and Actors: All Except UseCase as BehavioredClassifier; description through a Collaboration; being owned by a Classifier. 
      • Extends: All Except ownership of the extend relationship; extensionLocation 
      • Includes: All Except Include being a kind of NamedElement
Chapter 21: Primitive Types
  • 21.1 Summary: All 
  • 21.2 Semantics: All

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OCUP, OCRES, OCEB and OCSMP are joint programs of the OMG and the UML Technology Institute (UTI).