The OCEB 2 Business Intermediate Exam starts by completing coverage of the BMM, including
influencers, assessments, and modeling scenarios; and continues with advanced
BPMN modeling in many areas; the advantages of a shared business-wide
vocabulary as provided by SBVR and, based on this, the Business
Rules approach. It concludes with coverage of BP Management knowledge and skill
areas including KPI, BAM, Process Simulation and Optimization,
and Modeling ROI; industry frameworks for Process Quality,
Metrics, Governance, and Regulatory Compliance.
||105 minutes for residents of
135 minutes for all others
||US$200 (or equivalent in local
currency) for residents of English-speaking
US$210 (or equivalent in local
currency) for all others.
|Number of Questions
|Minimum Passing Score:
||59 Correct Responses
||Passing score on OCEB-2 Fundamental Exam
This page starts with the Coverage Map for the OCEB-2 Business
Intermediate Examination - a list of the topics and subtopics
covered, and the approximate percentage of the exam that each occupies.
Following the Coverage Map is the list of references, along with
suggestions for study.
TABLE - BUSINESS INTERMEDIATE
| Intermediate Business Motivational Modeling
Modeling business, moving up from Fundamental level: All
of the BMM defined in Chapters 7 and 8 of the BMM
specification V1.1 (Full reference
below). Includes referenced
elements of business model defined externally: Organization
Unit (in the BMM sense),
Business Process, Business Rule (see References section,
constructing BMM models and interpreting (brief) scenarios.
| Business Process Modeling with BPMN
All of the remaining BPMN model elements and diagrams
mentioned in the BPMN
Spec, V2.0 (Full reference below),
except that some events are specifically excluded as shown
on the chart linked below under
References. Also excluded
are the Transaction Subprocess and Transaction (ACID)
semantics (although Compensation is in scope), Auditing
(Section 10.9), and Monitoring (Section 10.10). Note that
XMI is never included, and attributes are not covered
unless mentioned specifically. For data
handling, the exam will cover data object (including
Lifecycle and Accessibility), data store,
data input, and data output as elements of processes built
from the business point of view, but not delve into
inputSets, outputSets, or other (typically
implementation-dependent) details of data handling. Consider Global Task and Global
Process; Handling Events;
Gateway; and Compensation. Limited aspects of the following; see
the BPMN 2 References paragraph below for details:
Conversations; Choreography; Execution Semantics (which is
also described in a white paper on our list); Error Handling; Diagram Interchange.
Management and Modeling with DMN:
DMN Basic Concepts, and Scope and Uses. Decision
Requirements; Relating Decision Logic to Decision
Requirements; and Decision Tables. Relation of DMN to
BPMN. See the References section, below.
| Business Rules Approach
and Shared Business-Wide Vocabulary
Noun Concepts and Business Rules (BR) vocabulary; BR
Basics; Two types of BR; BR and Business
Processes. Creating and using Process-Specific Business Rules. Advantages of a
shared business-wide vocabulary (SBVR Awareness).
| Business Process Management Knowledge and Skills
BP Project Management: Activity Lifecycle, Ownership of
Processes. Measurement and Optimization: CSFs and KPIs, Business Activity
Monitoring, Scorecarding, Process Simulation and Optimization,
BPM ROI, Model Value Analysis (When to model, and when not to),
BPMS Tool fundamentals, BPM Center of Excellence basics,
Organizational Change Management.
| Process Quality and Governance Frameworks
Process Quality and Governance Frameworks: Questions at the
Intermediate exam go one level deeper into the scope, goals, and
structure of these major frameworks: SOX, COBIT, and ITIL;
OMG's Business Process Maturity Model (BPMM), 6 Sigma, and
LEAN especially as it relates to BPM.
OCEB BUSINESS INTERMEDIATE
EXAM - REFERENCE
This is a list of suggested references that is neither
required nor complete, although it does contain suggestions for
study more precise than the general topics list above. It is not expected that anyone accumulate this exact
library of references to study for the exam. We realize there are a few topics listed in the
Coverage Map above that are not represented by explicit book or page
references in this Study Material section, but we know that the capable
Intermediate Level BPM Practitioner can find them, either in one of the
references, or in a source of its own.
About Wikipedia: In general, we have found Wikipedia articles to
be good sources of basic knowledge about topics covered by the OCEB-2
examinations, but we have not listed any Wikipedia articles as
sources here. We do not feel right about
referencing an article that can change from minute to minute –
making it possible for an article that reads perfectly well when one
person studies it, to be incorrect (or, at least, inconsistent with
an OCEB-2 examination question) when another person studies from it
later that day, or the next. We expect that many candidates will
find Wikipedia a useful starting point for their study, although we
expect that those at Intermediate and Advanced level will choose to go
beyond Wikipedia for material on many topics.
The BPM experts who mapped the
coverage and wrote the questions for the OCEB examinations found
that no single book covered the range of material that a
well-rounded BPM practitioner needs to know. In our lists for
the different examinations, you'll find the books that we used
to write the questions, but we don't think it's necessary to
study this exact set in order to do well on the exam. In the
entry for each book, we've listed the topics we covered from it;
if you have another book that covers the same topics, or can
find an alternate source somewhere else (such as on the Web), we
suggest you use it instead of investing in a book that nearly
Fundamentals of Business Process Management
Marlon Dumas et al - Springer, 2013 [ISBN-10: 3642331424]
For BPM Lifecycle, Section 1.4.
For Process Analysis, Chapter 7. Section 7.1.2
discusses Balanced Scorecard but also see the paper
cited below. Sections 7.2.1 and 7.2.2
discuss time per cycle. Section 7.2.4 discusses
cost per cycle, and includes an example calculation.
Section 10.3 continues the presentation of performance
analysis. 10.3.2 focuses on cost.
For Process Automation and BPMS, 9.1, 9.2, and 9.3.
(Section 9.4 will be covered in the OCEB 2 Technical
Coverage of the BPMN elements and techniques covered
in this exam is scattered through the book - We will
not attempt to cite section and page for this here. If
you study enough to be well-prepared for your career,
you'll be prepared for this exam also.
- Real-Life BPMN: Using BPMN 2.0 to Analyze,
Improve, and Automate Processes in Your Company
Jakob Freund, Bernd Rucker - CreateSpace, 2012
The following sections of the book are available
for free download here, with our thanks to the
For Error Handling, Secs. 2.3.4, 2.6.4, 2.8.3, 2.8.6,
For Compensaton: Sec. 2.6.9.
For Execution Semantics: Sec. 5.2 (all); note that
Sec. 5.1, although not covered explicitly, provides
Business Process Change, Second Edition
Paul Harmon - Morgan
Chapter 3 (Understanding the Enterprise, or an
alternative source on systems-view vs. process-view of an
Note: The paper “Systems Thinking” by Peter Fingar, in the
OCEB Fundamental reference list, also covers this topic but at a
- Business Modeling: A Practical
Guide to Realizing Business Value
David Bridgeland and Ron Zahavi - MK/OMG Press, 2008. [ISBN-10:
The referenced chapter on Model Value
Analysis is posted for free
- Business Rule Concepts: Getting to the
Point of Knowledge, 4th edition
Ronald Ross - BRS, 2013. [ISBN: 0-941049-14-0]
NOTE: Prior editions are NOT equivalent.
Chapters 1, 2, 7, and 11.
- Business Process Management with a Business Rules
Tom Debevoise, 2007. [ISBN 978-1-4196-7368-9 ]
Chapters 3 and 4 (Business
Rules in Business Processes, or an alternative reference on BRs
in BPs such as Ch 11 of Ross, just above)
- Change Management: The People
Side of Change, Second Edition
Jeffrey Hiatt and Timothy Creasey - Prosci, 2012. [ISBN:
Chapters 1, 2, 4.
Books about GRC and other industry frameworks are listed in
their own section, below.
Papers (All downloadable free):
Definition of Business Process
- John Hall,
Overview of OMG Business Motivation Model: Core
Note: If you're new to the BMM, this paper
by one of its principal authors will get you started,
but you'll still need to study all of the sections
assigned in the specification reference (below).
- Decision Management Solutions,
Modeling with DMN, White Paper.
Written by contributors to the DMN specification, this
white paper introduces decision management and
decision modeling in an accessible way.
- Kurz, Menge, and Misiak, Diagram
Interchangeability in BPMN 2, White
Written by members of OMG's Model Interchange
Working Group, this paper introduces DI at a level
that should let you get started with it, and also
about the level covered in this exam. The BPMN 2 spec,
Sections 12.1.1 and 12.1.2, are also in scope.
- Kathy Long,
Roles: Who are the Process Owners?, White
A detailed, and well-organized treatment of a topic
that doesn't have an "official" definition.
If your organization doesn't quite fit the role
definitions and descriptions in this paper, it may
benefit from one of the many others on the web, but
this paper is still a good place to start.
- Jay April et al,
Enhancing Business Process Management With
Simulation Optimization, BPTrends. We've listed
four different papers on S&O here (including this
one and the next three). You don't have to study from
more than one to prepare for the exam; use the variety
to pick one close to your area, or your learning
- Denis Gagne,
and Simulation in Business Process Management.
This is a slide presentation. The first nine slides are introduction; S&O
material starts on slide 10.
Simulation Tutorial: If you're planning to
do S&O, or you're just curious to see what a
simulation output looks like (and so what you can
learn and benefit from it), have a look at this
tutorial. All source code is included so you can run
the simulations yourself, but the results are given
too (and discussed) so you don't have to run the
exercise in order to learn the lesson.
- K Clauberg, W Thomas, Signavio,
and Simulation White Paper. Another good
description of S&O. The final section is
product-specific; of course none of the
product-specific material will
be on the exam and we don't mean to endorse any
vendor's product - but we're pleased to link to any
vendor's paper or website that presents general
material in a useful way.
- Paul Harmon, BPTrends, Balanced
Scorecard. A good high-level summary. For
the exam, concentrate on the first few pages but the
rest of the paper looks interesting too.
- EI Dynamics,
Beginner’s Guide to Business Activity Monitoring
(BAM). A thorough and recent (late 2013)
description of BAM.
Activity Monitoring (BAM) The New Face of BPM.
This somewhat dated (2006) paper is still useful, but
shouldn't be your only source on BAM. Use the
reference just above, or some other source, in
- Nathaniel Palmer, OpenText,
a Business Case for BPM. A well-written
paper that works through the development of a BPM
project, building the business case along the way. Two
case studies, one including detailed ROI calculations,
back up the author's conclusions. For a reference on
Model Value Analysis, see Bridgeland
and Zahavi under Books, above.
- Ed Walters, What are CSFs and KPIs? Viewable
Note: viewable but not downloadable
free; or another tutorial
reference on Critical Success Factors and Key Performance
- Richard A. Caralli, CMU,
Critical Success Factor Method: Establishing a
Foundation for Enterprise Security Management.
This admittedly long paper does a good job of
explaining what CSFs are and (in the initial sections)
how they differ from, e.g., goals and objectives (but
note that it was written before BMM and so does not
use BMM's definitions of these terms). Although it
covers in much more detail than the exam, it provides
a good resource for the serious practitioner. There's
abstract and introduction here.
- IBM Redpaper: Lisa Dyer et al,
a BPM Center of Exellence (CoE).
This recent (Feb 2013) and extensive paper covers CoE
practice and benefits in detail.
- Rich Seeley,
Forrester Details “Secret Sauce” for BPM Success
Discusses the positive impact of establishing a BPM Center of
- Derek Miers,
The Keys to BPM Project Success
This paper, by a well-established BPM
consultant, mentions CoE as a small part of its
coverage of the many aspects that combine to make a
BPM project successful, as well as pitfalls that may
make it less so.
- BPTrends, Paul Harmon:
to Evaluating BPMS Suites. This article, originally the introductory
section to a larger report surveying vendors'
BPM Suites, can be viewed as a BPM Suites Capabilities
Overview. Software product evaluations go out of date
quickly as versions replace versions, but the general
descriptions in this introduction remain helpful (and
we appreciate BPTrends' keeping it available on-line
so we can use it as a reference). It's true that,
as the authors point out in an introductory paragraph, recent additions to suites' capabilities are not
discussed but the thoroughness of the treatment of
basic capabilities keeps this article
OMG Specifications (All Downloadable free):
Business Motivation Model Specification, V
Chapters 1, 7, and 8. All BMM elements are in scope.
Includes referenced elements
of business model defined externally, and their
connection to the business model - See Fig. 7.1 and
Sections 7.3.8, 7.3.9. 7.3.10. Note that Appendix F.2
supplements Section 7.3.9, and Appendix F.3 supplements
7.3.10. Consider the connection between a BMM and Business Rules,
and how business processes relate to strategies and
tactics It may be useful to study Sections 7.4 and 7.5
to organize your understanding of the BMM, but the exam
will not ask specific questions about the contents of
these sections, nor will it ask specifically about the
example given in Section 8.4.8 (although it is certainly
possible to learn a lot about BMM by studying this
example!). An informal reading of
Annex B (metrics) may be helpful, as well as Annex G
(categorization) although the exam does not expect that
candidates will have memorized any of these
Decision Model and Notation (DMN), Beta 1
Chapter 5, Introduction to DMN (all, including
subsections). For Chapters 6 (Decision Requirements), 7
(Relating Decision Logic to Decision Requirements), and
8 (Decision Table), the first two subsections .1
(Introduction) and .2 (Notation) are in scope but the
third subsection .3 (Metamodel) will not be tested
explicitly. Concepts presented in Chapter 11 (DMN
Example) are in scope. Annex A (Relation to BPMN) is in
scope. Decision Management and Modeling are emerging as important aspects of BPM practice, so
familiarity with the capabilities of the DMN spec will
be an advantage to candidates in their careers.
Business Process Maturity Model Specification, V1.0
Section 2.2 (Conformance)
Chapters 7, Introduction only
Model and Notation (BPMN), V2.0
The exam covers definition and use of most of the BPMN elements,
plus the material in these chapters and sections:
For Events Covered, see
For Event Handling, Error Handling, and Compensation:
All of Section 10.4.6, All of Section 10.6 (including
subsections), plus the description of Error in Table
10.88. For the Complex Gateway, note that Section 13.3.5
fills in a lot of detail not present in the first
mention in Section 10.5.5.
For Conversations: Section 9.4 (Introduction and 9.4.2
only; no other subsections).
For Choreography: Chapter 11, Introduction (except Fig.
11.1) and Sect. 11.1 only.
For Execution Semantics: The breadth and depth of
Chapter 13 far exceeds the coverage of execution
semantics on this exam. For this exam, you only need to
cover from the start of the chapter through Section
13.2.1. Also see Section 5.2 of the book Real-Life BPMN (referenced
above), which presents the differences between a
process model built for understanding and one built (or
adapted, typically extensively) for execution. (To
demonstrate your deeper mastery of BPMN Execution
Semantics, take the OCEB 2 Technical Intermediate
For Diagram Interchange, the exam does not cover this
topic from the POV of Ch 12, which was written for
implementers, and not for users, of this capability. The
white paper Diagram
Interchangeability in BPMN 2, referenced
in full above, discusses this topic at a more suitable
user level. In addition, the point about exchange of
incomplete models presented in Section 15.1 of the spec
will be relevant to many projects.
Note the re-definition in BPMN 2 of the terms Embedded
Sub-process and Reusable Sub-process from the meanings used in BPMN
1.2, stated in the paragraph following Figure 10.28 in
Section 10.2.5. These are now referred to as Sub-Process
and Call Activity, respectively. The OCEB 2 exams will
use the new terminology and semantics.
You do not need to study any of the class diagrams nor the XML
Schemas shown in the BPMN spec document. However,
candidates familiar with object-oriented concepts and
UML will find that these class diagrams summarize
essential aspects of the BPMN elements in a particularly
of Business Vocabulary and Rules (SBVR), v1.2
Chapter 1, all. A familiarity with the concepts
presented in Chapter 2 will be helpful, although this
material will not be covered directly. NOTE
That the referenced Annexes of this specification have
been rearranged and re-labeled between versions 1.1 and 1.2. They are
now independent documents and must be retrieved
separately using the following links:. Annex
E: Overview of the Approach except Sections
E4.5, E.5 (including
subsections), and E.6 (including subsections). Annex
F: The Business Rules Approach except Section
Unlike the Fundamental examination which quizzed very
broadly, the Business Intermediate examination focuses on only
three GRC frameworks plus three quality frameworks: SOX,
CobiT, and ITIL on the GRC side, and BPMM, 6 Sigma, and LEAN
on the quality side There are
multiple good sources for all of them; we think our list
includes some very good ones but, if you already have a
reference, go ahead and use it. Several of these frameworks (CobiT,
e.g.) are covered by definition or description
documents which may be downloaded free directly from their
sponsoring organization's website, although these source
documents may not be a good place to start studying!
Executive's Guide to IT Governance: Robert R.
Moeller, Wiley, 2013. [ISBN 1118138619] This book presents
the three Governance frameworks at the level covered by this
exam - SOx in Chapter 2; COBIT in Chapter 5; and ITIL in
Chapter 6. There's a lot of book beyond these chapters, of
course, and you'll be better prepared for a career as a
leader in BPM if you spend some time with it and keep the
book on the shelf in your office, near your
SOX: The Sarbanes-Oxley Act is covered in
referenced above. If you don’t have access to the Guide, you
should study the scope and goals of SOX, and know the major and
high-impact Sections with their scopes and goals.
COBIT: COBIT is covered in Moeller's Guide,
referenced above. Alternatively, ISACA presents a useful summary
on this web page. (Be sure to scroll down and read the 5
Principles and 7 Enablers below the break.) For a bit more
this powerpoint presentation labeled "An
Introduction" . You can download
COBIT 5 for free
here- useful if you plan to use COBIT in your work - but you
don't need to study beyond the website, powerpoint, or material
in Moeller for this
ITIL: ITIL is covered in Moeller's Guide,
referenced above. Alternatively, you can study from
Introductory Overview booklet available for free
on-line. The booklet covers ITIL more thoroughly than the
exam does; you can do well on this section of the exam (and
know enough about ITIL to know when it might help in your
career) by studying through Chapter 4. Still, a quick look
at the introductory paragraphs to the remaining chapters
could be useful too.
BPMM may be studied from the cited sections of the
specification, referenced above.
Six Sigma: Craig Gygi et al, Six Sigma for
Dummies, Second Edition, Wiley, 2012.
ISBN-10: 1118120353, or another suitable reference or tutorial.
(It isn't necessary to buy a separate book to learn Six
Sigma at the level covered by this exam.) Candidates should know the range of concepts included in Six
Sigma, and their definitions.
LEAN: Philip Schume, IBM:
and Lean -- a powerful combination for process improvement
(White paper). The exam covers the initial presentation
of LEAN and the next section on How business process
management complements Lean. Because we don't cover
methodologies in our certification, that's as far as you
have to study but, if you're interested to see how one
methodology combines BPM and LEAN, read on.