OCEB 2 - Fundamental

OMG Certified Expert in BPM™ 2 (OCEB™ 2)


The OCEB 2 Fundamental Exam covers basic elements of Business Essentials and Business Modeling, Business Process, Business Process Management, Business Process Modeling, and essential and widely-used industry frameworks. Holders of the OCEB 2 Fundamental Certification have demonstrated the knowledge and modeling skills to be productive members of a BPM project team on either the Business or Technical side of the aisle.  

Examination Number: ........................ OMG-OCEB2-FUND100
Duration: ............................................. 90 minutes for residents of English-speaking countries;
120 minutes for all others
Exam Fee: ........................................... US$250 (or equivalent in local currency) for residents of English-speaking countries;
US$260 (or equivalent in local currency) for all others.
Number of Questions: ...................... 90
Minimum Passing Score: ................... 62 correct responses
Prerequisite: ...................................... None 

This page starts with the Coverage Map for the OCEB 2 Fundamental Examination - a list of the topics and subtopics covered, and the percentage of the exam that each occupies. Following the Coverage Map is the list of references, along with suggestions for study.


Business Goals, Objectives
Business Basics from the purely Business Point of View: Business fundamentals, strategy, planning and goal-setting, project management, marketing, staffing, finance.
Business Process Concepts and Fundamentals
Fundamental aspects of Business Processes:  Identifying (Discovering) business processes, characteristics of processes, As-Is process vs. To-Be process, Levels of business process modeling, Tying Business Processes to Goals and Objectives.
Business Process Management Concepts and Fundamentals
Fundamentals of Business Process Management: Functional vs. Process-Centric Enterprise Organization; Styles of Process Management; Advancements in Process Management;  Stakeholders' Roles and Responsibilities; Enabling Tools of Process Management.
Business Motivation Modeling
Business Modeling Fundamentals - Elements of the Business Motivational Model: Business Vision, Goals, Objectives; Means and Ends; Mission, Strategies, Tactics; Aspects of Business Modeling.
Business Process Modeling Concepts
This section is based on OMG's Business Process Model and Notation Specification™ Version 2  (BPMN™ 2). Attributes are not covered in this examination. 
Business Process Modeling Fundamentals: BPMN Basics; Definition and use of all BPMN Elements included in the Descriptive and Analytic Conformance Subclasses; Activities; Grouping Elements of a Model.
Business Process Modeling Skills
This section is based on OMG's Business Process Model and Notation Specification™ Version 2  (BPMN™ 2). Attributes are not covered in this examination. . 
Business Process Modeling Skills: Most questions in this section ask something about a brief scenario presented either as a BPMN diagram or in a few sentences. All BPMN elements listed in the Descriptive and Analytic Conformance Subclasses are in scope. 
Process Quality, Governance, and Metrics Frameworks
Awareness of Industry Reference Models, and Quality, Metrics, and Governance Frameworks: This section covers its topics at an high level, allowing the candidate to demonstrate awareness of a range of industry frameworks that may prove either beneficial or, for regulatory frameworks, required by law in a project. Covered frameworks include the APQC Process Classification Framework, SCOR, Value Chain Reference Model, Business Process Maturity Model (BPMM), Six Sigma, Balanced Scorecard, COBIT, Basel 2, and Sarbanes-Oxley.





The BPM experts who mapped the coverage and wrote the questions for the OCEB 2  examinations found that no single book covered the range of material that a well-rounded BPM practitioner needs to know. In our lists for the different examinations, you'll find the books that we used to write the questions, but we don't think it's necessary to study this exact set in order to do well on the exam. In the entry for each book, we've listed the topics we covered from it; if you have another book that covers the same topics, or can find an alternate source somewhere else (such as on the Web), we suggest you use it instead of investing in a book that nearly duplicates it.

  • OCEB 2 Certification Guide, 2nd Edition - Business Process Management- Fundamental Level
    Tim Weilkiens- Elsevier, 2016  [ISBN- 978-0128053522]

    This book, written by the authors of the original OCEB Certification Guide and a contributor to the OCEB 2 examination itself, has been updated for the OCEB 2 Fundamental exam and is available in either print or electronic format. Besides the usual sources, this book can be ordered from the OMG reading room directly from Elsevier. Use the discount code found at the top of the listings section (scroll up in your browser) for OMG's special discount pricing. The original German edition of this book may still be ordered from the amazon.de website

  • MBA in a Day
    Steven Stralser - Wiley, 2004 [ ISBN-10: 0471680540 ]
    Chapters 1 (Human Resources)
    8 (Marketing, Strategy, Competitive Analysis)
    11 (Project Management)

  • The Complete Idiot's Guide to MBA Basics, 3rd Edition
    Tim Gorman - Alpha, 2011 [ ISBN-10: 1615640711 ]
    Chapters 1 & 2 (Management functions and skills)
    3 (Parts of a Business)
    7 (Operations Management)
    8 (Business Decisions)
    13 (Financial Analysis)
    23 (Strategic Planning)
    NOTE: You can study from the 2nd Edition if you already have it, but note that in this edition Chapter 8 covers Operations Management, and Chapter 9 covers Business Decisions. All other chapters correspond.

  • Fundamentals of Business Process Management
    Marlon Dumas et al - Springer, 2013 [ISBN-10: 3642331424 | ISBN-13: 978-3642331428]
    Chapter 1 (Introduction to Business Process Management)
    Chapter 2 (Process Identification)
    Chapter 9, Sections 9.1, 9.2 (Process Automation)
    You may also look at Chapters 3 and 4 which present Business Process 
    Modeling, but we expect that beginning modelers may find the level and treatment 
    somewhat advanced. The presentations of BPMN modeling by Bruce Silver or 
    Tom Debevoise in their books cited separately below may be more helpful. 

  • Business Process Management: The Third Wave (any edition)
    Howard Smith & Peter Fingar - Meghan-Kiffer, pub.
    Out of print but available on the used market typically at less-than-new prices.
    Chapters 1 (Discusses the Rise of BPM)
    3 (Enterprise Business Processes)

    These days, we mostly take the business process viewpoint for granted but this was not always the case. Taking the introductory point of view required by the times it was written and published, this book and associated articles present the arguments for and advantages of process orientation so we leave it on our reference list in spite of (or perhaps because of) its age. As an alternative to purchasing a (perhaps used) copy of the book, or if a copy is not available, consider studying from these articles and excerpts that provide some (albeit not all) of the content of the cited chapters:

  • Finally, we note that Appendix C or this book, The Theoretical Foundations of  the Third Wave, is available as a pdf document here. If you’re trying to deepen your understanding of business processes and BPM to bring advantage to your company, consider reading this piece even though it’s not a reference for our OCEB 2 exam.
  • BPMN Method and Style
    Bruce Silver -  Cody-Cassidy, 2011 [ISBN 978-0-9823681-1-4]
    One of several books that present BPMN modeling in a coherent way, suitable for beginners but deep enough to be useful for more advanced modelers as well. Note that OCEB 2 examinations cover only modeling, and not methodology. You can be successful in both your OCEB 2 certification and your BPM career if you study from a book that presents BPMN modeling in the context of yours or your company's chosen methodology; if you haven't settled on one yet, this book or Tom Debevoise' (below) could be good places to start

  • The Microguide to Process Modeling in BPMN 2.0
    Tom Debevoise, Rick Geneva - Advanced Component Research, 2011 [978-1-4635-1135-7]
    A presentation of BPMN modeling alternative to Bruce Silver's book (just above). 

  • Business Process Management: A Rigorous Approach
    Martyn Ould - Meghan-Kiffer, 2005 [ ISBN-10: 0929652274 ]
    NOTE: The Introduction is available from the BCS as a free download here.

Papers (All downloadable free):

OMG and other Specifications (All Downloadable free):

  • Business Process Maturity Model Specification, V1.0
    Chapters 1
    2 (Section 2.1)

  • Business Motivation Model Specification, V 1.1
    NOTE: Changes from BMM V1.0 to V1.1 are slight and do not affect material covered in the OCEB 2 examination. 
    Chapters 1

  • Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), V2.0   
    Note: BPMN Attributes are not covered in this examination.
    The BPMN 2.0 specification is a language definition document – not a modeling textbook. Do not expect to learn business process modeling from it – Study modeling skills from a book or course that starts from the business side, discovering or defining processes and rendering them in BPMN 2. Nevertheless, there are parts of the specification that can help your study (and it is free to download, after all). Chapter 1 describes the scope of the language. Tables 2.1 and 2.2 list the BPMN model elements that are in scope for the Fundamental examination, and also form the most used and useful subset for high-level business process modeling in general. Also in that chapter, Section 2.1.1 introduces many of the terms that you'll encounter later in your studies. Almost all of Chapter 7, written in a helpful style, is in scope for this level except for a few elements and advanced aspects in Table 7.2, and Section 7.6 on Extensibility. You should know the purpose of Conversation and Choreography diagrams as mentioned in this chapter but don’t need to study them in detail for this exam –  Concentrate on Process and Collaboration diagrams instead. For each element in the Descriptive and Analytic conformance subclasses, and each aspect of business process modeling mentioned in the Coverage Map section above, be sure you know its notation (Table 7.1 or 7.2) and its definition and use in business process modeling (either from its section later in the specification document, or – better – from a text or reference book on business process modeling).  

Industry Frameworks:

There are simply too many relevant industry frameworks to cover in any detail; for this part of the  examination we have chosen breadth over depth:  Every BPM Practitioner needs to be aware of these widely used frameworks - the topic each covers, and highlights of the way each one organizes its domain - so the OCEB Fundamental examination covers these key characteristics, but does not go deeper. Many practitioners will specialize in one of these frameworks, learning its details and seeking the specialized additional certification offered by these frameworks' sponsoring organization. Many of the frameworks are covered by definition or description documents, referenced here,  which may be downloaded free directly from their sponsoring organization's website. For Six Sigma and Balanced Scorecard, you will probably do equivalently well studying from the books listed here or from tutorial material that you locate yourself by Internet search. Regulatory Compliance and Governance is a serious topic, and we think every BPM practitioner should be aware of both general aspects and a number of specific standard and regulatory frameworks including those covered here. The book we list  would be an asset in any BPM practitioner's library, but is not the only source of reliable information on the topics covered.  

  • Six Sigma for Dummies, Second Ed. (2012) 
    Craig Gygi et al - Wiley, 2012 [ ISBN-13: 978-1118120354]
    NOTE: Do not let our specific chapter and section references restrict your view of Six Sigma (or any of our other topics)! There's a lot of good material in this book that we couldn't include in our awareness-level coverage, that you can browse through on your own to see what might help in your work or career. 
    Chapter 1: Defining Six Sigma, Introduction and first section, "Discovering What's Behind the Name". The remainder of chapters 1 and 2 provide helpful context but are not covered explicitly.
    Chapter 4: Introductory paragraphs and first section, "DMAIC: Introducing Your Project Strategy".
    Chapters 19 and 20, focusing on the basics of process control and Control Charts. 
    If you have the first edition, use our original chapter references to cover essentially the same content: 
    Chapter 1: Defining Six Sigma, Introductory section.
    Chapter 3: Pinpointing the Essentials of Six Sigma,  Introductory section and first section, The Project Strategy: DMAIC.
    Chapter 10: Locking in the Gains, covering basics of process control and control charts
    Note: Any good introductory book or reference on Six Sigma will prepare well for the awareness-level coverage in the OCEB Fundamental examination. 

  • APQC Process Classification Framework, V 6.0.0
    Downloadable here. (PDF version, which is the default.) Pages 1-3. 

  • Supply Chain Council's Supply-Chain Operations Reference model (SCOR) 
    A good summary provided by an Australian company here, or this Wikipedia article

  • Summary of the Value Reference Model
    Section 7.2.3 Value Reference Model from Weilkiens et al, OCEB 2 Certification Guide, posted here with permission from Elsevier, Inc.  Click here for free download.

  • The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy into Action
    Robert S. Kaplan, David P. Norton - Harvard Business School Press, 1996 [ ISBN-10: 0875846513 ] Chapter 1. 
    Note: Any good basic book or introductory article on Balanced Scorecard will  cover the foundation material tested in the OCEB Fundamental Examination. 

  • Say What You Do: Building a Framework of IT Controls, Policies, Standards, and Procedures
    Dorian, J Cougias et al - Shaser-Vartan, 2007 [ ISBN-10: 0972903968 ]
    NOTE: If you plan to work in Governance, consider making this book a  part of your personal reference library. 
    Chapters 1
    2 (pp 11-52, covering general aspects of regulatory compliance and governance, plus COBIT,  Basel 2, and Sarbanes-Oxley)

For more information or questions about the OMG Certification Program, contact  certificationinfo@omg.org.

OCUP, OCEB and OCSMP are joint programs of the OMG and the OMG Japan.